Deutsche Eicheln(German Acorns)

Political art against hitler heartfield AIZ cover Deutsche Eicheln, German Acorns

German Acorns


In this complex John Heartfield political art against Hitler, the father of photomontage presents a true, but somewhat distorted, figure of Adolf Hitler (the enlarged head) as a gardener watering an oak tree. The oak tree and its leafs are traditional German national symbols associated with patriotism and military prowess. For example, these symbols were often found on the uniforms of Nazi soldiers and the SS.The “acorns” Hitler is growing are symbolic in several ways.Hitler “nourished” the Hitler Youth movement to militarize the young. It was a not too subtle way of subverting the rules of international agreements regarding the rearmament of Germany after WWI. The acorns are bombs and helmets that are large and ready to fall. Heartfield is clearly warning of the approach of WWII.Notice that Hitler is not a “good” gardener. A healthy German oak should be straight and strong. In Heartfield’s photomontage, the oak is crooked and sickly.For much more detail on the symbols appearing in this classic Heartfield photomontage against Hitler, please read Andrea Hofmann’s insightful commentary on Deutsche Eicheln directly below.


by Andrea Hofmann

John Heartfield’s 1933 political art against Hitler Deutsche Eicheln (German Acorns) served as a teaser for the AIZ article “How They Poison the Young.” The complex symbolism packed into this Heartfield political photomontage is astonishing considering the number of days until the artist’s production deadline.Heartfield’s clearest message is Hitler’s brainwashing of children.We must always defend against efforts to turn our young into weapons of war and cannon fodder.Deutsche Eicheln shows Hitler’s toxic effect on healthy growth. Heartfield’s message is that the Hitler Youth organization was little more than a paramilitary outfit. In effect, the military training of The Hitler Youth was a subtle violation of The Treaty of Versailles and the Four-Power Pact signed between Britain, France, Italy, and Germany in July, 1933.

In Heartfield’s political art, there are similarities between Hitler’s uniform and Hitler Youth uniforms. However, Heartfield did not dress Hitler in shorts like a Hitler Youth youngster. This is completely in line with Heartfield’s philosophy that his political collages must always be created from real images. He did not “Photoshop” reality to make his point. He used reality in a satiric or ironic manner to drive home his message.Hitler’s threat must be taken seriously. He is in charge now (the gardener). Hitler is looking after affairs (the metal watering can). The outcome is booming militarization (acorns). What seems likes a harmless activity has massive implications. Deutsche Eicheln makes it clear that the Hitler Youth, the militarization of German children, had an international impact.Heartfield does make Hitler appear preposterous by enlarging his head. However, Hitler is not portrayed as infantile or ridiculous. He clearly remains a highly dangerous scheming strategist. Hitler’s enlarged head suggests a puppet under the control of financiers and war profiteers.The oak tree is a German national symbol. It stands for endurance, fortitude, loyalty, and reliability. In short, it’s a symbol of strength. The stem of a healthy oak should be upright.Heartfield’s oak trunk appears warped and damaged. This is a “distorted” tree. Hitler is corrupting the stock with his watering can. Following that logic, the root cause of the degenerate acorns is the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, chauvinism, militarism, and patriotism. There are also the spiked helmets, which were associated with the Prussian military. The gas mask would be a reference to WWI as well as to the newly founded National Air Raid Protection League.It’s notable that Hitler is not watering oak saplings, but rather an existing big old tree. This means he is refining and enhancing an existing tradition.Oak leaves are an international symbol of heroism. They are used in many countries. They were also used in Nazi Germany and were SS insignia.Acorns were also SS insignia (a link amplified by the helmets which sport swastikas). Acorns usually fall in autumn, especially September. The acorns in Heartfield’s montage German Acorns (Deutsche Eicheln) are huge. They are ready to drop. Heartfield is warning of a war in the making.Obviously, the acorns Hitler is growing won’t fall far from the tree. This indicates Heartfield is warning of another war in Europe.Some of the acorns have flat tops. These could signify dumdum bullets whose military use was outlawed by the Hague Convention of 1899.Is Heartfield implying Hitler was breaking international law? Is he referring to the horrors of WWI where illegal weapons like dumdum bullets were used despite the Hague Conventions? The injuries that these weapons caused were still part of collective consciousness and experience.Ultimately, Heartfield’s Deutsche Eicheln (German Acorns) challenges the idea that Nazis could be trusted. Hitler’s expression is grim. It is not the face of a beneficial gardener growing healthy crops.Implicitly, Heartfield’s political art against Hitler questions Neville Chamberlain’s appeasement policy. References to Nazi blood and soil ideology and back to nature cult only enhance the grotesque effect of the scene. They support Winston Churchill who had publicly challenged German rearmament and questioned the isolationist policy of the USA.As so often with a Heartfield photomontage, there is a visual pun. Since Hitler is not your obvious choice as a gardener, the German saying “den Bock zum Gärtner machen” springs to mind. It translates to “to appoint the goat as gardener.” Who would have a goat as their gardener? This is one more dig at Adolf Hitler’s supporters.Finally, there is the double meaning of “Eicheln.” It can mean acorn, but also glans. Perhaps Heartfield is commenting on Hitler’s fantasies of a testosterone-fueled master race? It’s the sharp-witted satire contained in John Heartfield WWII German political photomontages. The macho fantasies of Adolf Hitler are also on display in the John Heartfield political photomontage Völkische Tiefenschau, AIZ, August 31, 1933.

John Heartfield Art In The Official John Heartfield Exhibition Shop

“German Acorns (Deutsche Eicheln)”

The John Heartfield Exhibition Shop offers high-quality items featuring very excellent reproductions of this classic John Heartfield photomontage. Proudly display the images of the artist who rose to number-five on the Gestapo’s Most Wanted List for his use of “art as a weapon” against ignorance, injustice, fascism, and war. Profits from The Heartfield Exhibition Shop support The Official John Heartfield Exhibition and the development of an Online Museum For Progressive Political Art.

Curated By Heartfield's Grandson, John J Heartfield